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Case Definitions for Reportable Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)


Chancroid

http://wwwn.cdc.gov/NNDSS/script/conditionsummary.aspx?CondID=33

1996 Case Definition

Clinical description

A sexually transmitted disease characterized by painful genital ulceration and inflammatory inguinal adenopathy. The disease is caused by infection with Haemophilus ducreyi.

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

  • Isolation of H. ducreyi from a clinical specimen

Case classification

Probable: a clinically compatible case with both a) no evidence of Treponema pallidum infection by darkfield microscopic examination of ulcer exudate or by a serologic test for syphilis performed greater than or equal to 7 days after onset of ulcers and b) either a clinical presentation of the ulcer(s) not typical of disease caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) or a culture negative for HSV.

Confirmed: a clinically compatible case that is laboratory confirmed


Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

http://wwwn.cdc.gov/NNDSS/script/conditionsummary.aspx?CondID=35

2010 Case Definition

Clinical description

Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis may result in urethritis, epididymitis, cervicitis, acute salpingitis, or other syndromes when sexually transmitted; however, the infection is often asymptomatic in women. Perinatal infections may result in inclusion conjunctivitis and pneumonia in newborns. Other syndromes caused by C. trachomatis include lymphogranuloma venereum (see Lymphogranuloma Venereum) and trachoma.

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

  • Isolation of C. trachomatis by culture, or
  • Demonstration of C. trachomatis in a clinical specimen by detection of antigen or nucleic acid

Case classification

Confirmed: a case that is laboratory confirmed


Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)

http://wwwn.cdc.gov/NNDSS/script/conditionsummary.aspx?CondID=72

2014 Case Definition

Clinical description

A sexually transmitted infection commonly manifested by urethritis, cervicitis, proctitis, salpingitis, or pharyngitis. Infection may be asymptomatic.

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

  • Observation of gram-negative intracellular diplococci in a urethral smear obtained from a male or an endocervical smear obtained from a female, or
  • Isolation of typical gram-negative, oxidase-positive diplococci by culture (presumptive Neisseria gonorrhoeae) from a clinical specimen, or
  • Demonstration of N. gonorrhoeae in a clinical specimen by detection of antigen or nucleic acid

Case classification

Probable: demonstration of gram-negative intracellular diplococci in a urethral smear obtained from a male or an endocervical smear obtained from a female 

Confirmed: a person with laboratory isolation of typical gram-negative, oxidase-positive diplococci by culture (presumptive Neisseria gonorrhoeae) from a clinical specimen, or demonstration of N. gonorrhoeae in a clinical specimen by detection of antigen or detection of nucleic acid via nucleic acid amplification (e.g., Polymerase Chain Reaction [PCR]) or hybridization with nucleic acid probe.


Lymphogranuloma Venereum (Chlamydia trachomatis)

http://wwwn.cdc.gov/NNDSS/script/conditionsummary.aspx?CondID=101

1997 Case Definition

Clinical description

Infection with L1, L2, or L3 serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis may result in a disease characterized by genital lesions, suppurative regional lymphadenopathy, or hemorrhagic proctitis. The infection is usually sexually transmitted.

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

  • Isolation of C. trachomatis, serotype L1, L2, or L3, from clinical specimen, or
  • Demonstration by immunofluorescence of inclusion bodies  in leukocytes of an inguinal lymph node (bubo) aspirate, or
  • Positive microimmunofluorescent serologic test for a lymphogranuloma venereum strain of C. trachomatis (in a clinically compatible case)

Case classification

 

Probable: a clinically compatible case with one or more tender fluctuant inguinal lymph nodes or characteristic proctogenital lesions with supportive laboratory findings of a single C. trachomatis complement fixation (CF) titer of greater than 64

Confirmed: a case that is laboratory confirmed


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

*** 2010 California-specific Case Definition ***

Clinical description

A clinical syndrome resulting from the ascending spread of microorganisms from the vagina and endocervix to the endometrium, fallopian tubes, and/or contiguous structures; among sexually active women, characterized by pelvic or lower abdominal pain, with no cause for the illness other than PID identified.

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

None

Case classification

Probable: A sexually active woman with pelvic or lower abdominal pain, with no cause for the illness other than PID identified with one or more of the following minimum criteria present on pelvic examination: cervical motion tenderness OR uterine tenderness OR adnexal tenderness; AND treated for PID by a medical provider.


Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)

http://wwwn.cdc.gov/NNDSS/script/conditionsummary.aspx?CondID=138

2014 Case Definition

 

Syphilis, primary

Clinical description

A stage of infection with Treponema pallidum characterized by one or more ulcerative lesions (e.g. chancre), which might differ considerably in clinical appearance.

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

  • Demonstration of T. pallidum in clinical specimens by darkfield microscopy, or by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or equivalent direct molecular methods.

Case classification

Probable: a case that meets the clinical description of primary syphilis with a reactive serologic test (nontreponemal: Venereal Disease Research Laboratory [VDRL] or rapid plasma reagin [RPR]; or equivalent equivalent serologic methods; treponemal: fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed [FTA-ABS], T. pallidum particle agglutination [TP-PA], enzyme immunoassay [EIA], chemiluminescence immunoassay [CIA], or equivalent serologic methods). These treponemal tests supersede older testing technologies, including microhemagglutination assay for antibody to T. pallidum [MHA-TP].

Confirmed: a case that meets the clinical description of primary syphilis that is laboratory confirmed


Syphilis, secondary

Clinical description

A stage of infection caused by T. pallidum characterized by localized or diffuse mucocutaneous lesions (e.g., rash — such as non-pruritic macular, maculopapular, papular, or pustular lesions), often with generalized lymphadenopathy. Other symptoms can include mucous patches, condyloma lata, and alopecia. The primary ulcerative lesion may still be present. Because of the wide array of symptoms possibly indicating secondary syphilis, serologic tests for syphilis and a thorough sexual history and physical examination are crucial to determining if a case should be classified as secondary syphilis.

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

  • Demonstration of T. pallidum in clinical specimens by darkfield microscopy, or by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or equivalent direct molecular methods.

Case classification

Probable: a case that meets the clinical description of secondary syphilis with a nontreponemal (VDRL, RPR, or equivalent serologic methods) titer ≥4 AND a reactive treponemal test (FTA-ABS, TP-PA, EIA, CIA, or equivalent serologic methods

Confirmed: a case that meets the clinical description of secondary syphilis (with at least one sign or symptom) that is laboratory confirmed


Syphilis, early latent

Clinical description

A subcategory of latent syphilis (a stage of infection caused by T. pallidum in which organisms persist in the body of the infected person without causing symptoms or signs) when initial infection has occurred within the previous 12 months.

Case classification

Probable: a  person with no clinical signs or symptoms of syphilis who has one of the following:

  • No past diagnosis of syphilis, AND a reactive nontreponemal test (e.g., VDRL, RPR, or equivalent serologic methods), AND a reactive treponemal test (e.g., FTA-ABS, TP-PA, EIA, CIA, or equivalent serologic methods),

     OR

  • A current nontreponemal test titer demonstrating fourfold or greater increase from the last nontreponemal test titer

     AND evidence of having acquired the infection within the previous 12 months based on one or more of the following criteria:

  • Documented seroconversion or fourfold or greater increase in titer of a nontreponemal test during the previous 12 months 
  • Documented seroconversion of a treponemal test during the previous 12 months
  • A history of symptoms consistent with primary or secondary syphilis during the previous 12 months
  • A history of sexual exposure to a partner within the previous 12 months who had primary, secondary, or early latent syphilis (documented independently as duration < 12 months)
  • Only sexual contact was within the last 12 months (sexual debut)

Syphilis, late latent

Clinical description

A subcategory of latent syphilis (a stage of infection caused by T. pallidum in which organisms persist in the body of the infected person without causing symptoms or signs) when initial infection has occurred >12 months previously.

Case classification

Probable: a person with no clinical signs or symptoms of syphilis who has one of the following:

  • No past diagnosis of syphilis, AND a reactive nontreponemal test (e.g., VDRL, RPR, or equivalent serologic methods), AND a reactive treponemal test (e.g., FTA-ABS, TP-PA, EIA, CIA, or equivalent serologic methods),

     OR

  • past history of syphilis therapy and a current nontreponemal test titer demonstrating fourfold or greater increase from the last nontreponemal test titer:

     AND who has no evidence of having acquired the disease within the preceding 12 months (see Syphilis, early latent).


Syphilis, late, with clinical manifestations other than neurosyphilis (late benign syphilis and cardiovascular syphilis)

Clinical description

Clinical manifestations of late syphilis may include inflammatory lesions of the cardiovascular system, (e.g., aortitis, coronary vessel disease), skin (e.g., gummatous lesions), bone (e.g., osteitis) or other tissue. Rarely, other structures (e.g., the upper and lower respiratory tracts, mouth, eye, abdominal organs, reproductive organs, lymph nodes, and skeletal muscle) may be involved. Late syphilis usually becomes clinically manifest only after a period of 15–30 years of untreated infection. If only neurologic manifestations of syphilis (e.g., tabes dorsalis, dementia) are present and infection occurred more than 12 months ago, the case should be reported as "late syphilis".

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

Demonstration of T. pallidum in late lesions by special stains (although organisms are rarely visualized in late lesions), or equivalent methods, or by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or equivalent direct molecular methods.

Case classification

Probable: characteristic abnormalities or lesions of the cardiovascular system (e.g., aortitis, coronary vessel disease), skin (e.g., gummatous lesions), bone (e.g., osteitis), or other tissue AND a reactive treponemal test (e.g., FTA-ABS, TP-PA, EIA, CIA, or equivalent serologic methods), in the absence of other known causes of these abnormalities. CSF abnormalities and clinical symptoms or signs consistent with neurologic manifestations of syphilis might be present.

Confirmed: a case that meets the clinical description of late syphilis that is laboratory confirmed

Comment

Analysis of CSF for evidence of neurosyphilis is necessary in the evaluation of late syphilis with clinical manifestations.


Syphilis, congenital

http://wwwn.cdc.gov/NNDSS/script/conditionsummary.aspx?CondID=177

Clinical Description

A condition caused by infection in utero with Treponema pallidum. A wide spectrum of severity exists, and only severe cases are clinically apparent at birth. An infant or child (aged less than 2 years) may have signs such as hepatosplenomegaly, rash, condyloma lata, snuffles, jaundice (nonviral hepatitis), pseudoparalysis, anemia, or edema (nephrotic syndrome and/or malnutrition). An older child may have stigmata (e.g., interstitial keratitis, nerve deafness, anterior bowing of shins, frontal bossing, mulberry molars, Hutchinson teeth, saddle nose, rhagades, or Clutton joints).

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

Demonstration of Treponema pallidum by darkfield microscopy, fluorescent antibody, or other specific stains in specimens from lesions, placenta, umbilical cord, or autopsy material.

Case classification

Probable: a condition affecting an infant whose mother had untreated or inadequately treated* syphilis at delivery, regardless of signs in the infant, OR an infant or child who has a reactive treponemal test for syphilis AND any one of the following:

  • Any evidence of congenital syphilis on physical examination
  • Any evidence of congenital syphilis on radiographs of long bones
  • A reactive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test in a specimen of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)
  • An elevated CSF protein or CSF leukocyte count (without other cause)
  • A reactive fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed--19S-IgM antibody test or IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

Confirmed: a case that is laboratory confirmed

Comment

Congenital and acquired syphilis may be difficult to distinguish when a child is seropositive after infancy. Signs of congenital syphilis may not be obvious, and stigmata may not yet have developed. Abnormal values for CSF VDRL, cell count, and protein, as well as IgM antibodies, may be found in either congenital or acquired syphilis. Findings on radiographs of long bones may help because radiographic changes in the metaphysis and epiphysis are considered classic signs of congenitally acquired syphilis. The decision may ultimately be based on maternal history and clinical judgment. In a young child, the possibility of sexual abuse should be considered as a cause of acquired rather than congenital syphilis, depending on the clinical picture. For reporting purposes, congenital syphilis includes cases of congenitally acquired syphilis among infants and children as well as syphilitic stillbirths.

*Inadequate treatment consists of any non-penicillin therapy or penicillin given less than 30 days before delivery.


Syphilitic stillbirth

Clinical Description

A fetal death that occurs after a 20-week gestation or in which the fetus weighs greater than 500 g and the mother had untreated or inadequately treated* syphilis at delivery.

Comment

For reporting purposes, syphilitic stillbirths should be reported as cases of congenital syphilis.

*Inadequate treatment consists of any non-penicillin therapy or penicillin given less than 30 days before delivery.

 
 
Last modified on: 2/19/2014 5:04 PM